~Hepatitis C, Part 9 - References
176. Scholich H, Murphy ME et al. Antioxidant activity of dihydrolipoate against microsomal lipid peroxidation and its dependence on alpha-tocopherol. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1001(3):256-61.
177. Fuchs J, Schofer H et al. Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993;43(12):1359-62.
178. Packer L, Witt EH et al. alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995;19(2):227-50.
179. Lodge JK, Traber MG et al. Thiol chelation of Cu2+ by dihydrolipoic acid prevents human low density lipoprotein peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;25(3):287-97.
180. Gal EM. Reversal of selective toxicity of (-)-alpha-lipoic acid by thiamine in thiamine-deficient rats. Nature. 1965;207:535.
181. Packer L, Kraemer K et al. Molecular aspects of lipoic acid in the prevention of diabetes complications. Nutrition. 2001;17(10):888-95.
182. Malarkodi K. The influence of lipoic acid on adriamycin-induced hyperlipidemic nephrotoxicity in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;247(1-2):139-45.
183. Cotgreave IA, Berggren M et al. Gastrointestinal metabolism of N-acetylcysteine in the rat, including an assay for sulfite in biological systems. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1987;8(4):377-86.
184. Bonanomi L, Gazzaniga A. Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies on acetylcysteine. Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1980;111:45-51.
185. Burgunder JM, Varriale A et al. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on plasma cysteine and glutathione following paracetamol administration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1989;36(2):127-31.
186. Rodenstein D, DeCoster A et al. Pharmacokinetics of oral acetylcysteine: absorption, binding and metabolism in patients with respiratory disorders. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1978;3(3):247-54.
187. Laurent T, Markert M et al. Oxidant-antioxidant balance in granulocytes during ARDS. Effect of N-acetylcysteine. Chest. 1996;109(1):163-6.
188. Baier JE, Neumann HA et al. [Radiation protection through cytokine release by N-acetylcysteine]. Strahlenther Onkol. 1996;172(2):91-8.
189. Jones AL. Mechanism of action and value of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of early and late acetaminophen poisoning: a critical review. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1998;36(4):277-85.
190. Faintuch J, Aguilar PB et al. Relevance of N-acetylcysteine in clinical practice: fact, myth or consequence? Nutrition. 1999;15(2):177-9.
191. Chiao JW, Chung F et al. Modulation of growth of human prostate cancer cells by the N-acetylcysteine conjugate of phenethyl isothiocyanate. Int J Oncol. 2000;16(6):1215-9.
192. Redondo P, Bandres E et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and melanoma. N-acetylcysteine downregulates VEGF production in vitro. Cytokine. 2000;12(4):374-8.
193. Arora-Kuruganti P, Lucchesi PA et al. Proliferation of cultured human astrocytoma cells in response to an oxidant and antioxidant. J Neurooncol. 1999;44(3):213-21.
194. De Flora S. Detoxification of genotoxic compounds as a threshold mechanism limiting their carcinogenicity. Toxicol Pathol. 1984;12(4):337-43.
195. Wilpart M, Speder A et al. Anti-initiation activity of N-acetylcysteine in experimental colonic carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 1986;31(3):319-24.
196. De Flora S, Astengo M et al. Inhibition of urethan-induced lung tumors in mice by dietary N-acetylcysteine. Cancer Lett. 1986;32(3):235-41.
197. Beloqui O, Prieto J et al. N-acetyl cysteine enhances the response to interferon-alpha in chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study. J Interferon Res. 1993;13(4):279-82.
198. De Vries N, De Flora S. N-acetyl-l-cysteine. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1993;17F:270-7.
199. Jones AL, Jarvie DR et al. Pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine are altered in patients with chronic liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1997;11(4):787-91.
200. Kleinveld HA, Demacker PN et al. Failure of N-acetylcysteine to reduce low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43(6):639-42.
201. Lieber CS, Packer L. S-Adenosylmethionine: molecular, biological, and clinical aspects--an introduction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(5):1148S-50S.
202. Osman E, Owen JS et al. Review article: S-adenosyl-L-methionine--a new therapeutic agent in liver disease? Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1993;7(1):21-8.
203. Bottiglieri T, Laundy M et al. Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine metabolism in depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;69(2):228-32.
204. CSWG. S-Adenosylmethionine—Summary of Data for Chemical Selection. National Toxicology Program (NTP), U S Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). 1999.
205. Bottiglieri T, Godfrey P et al. Cerebrospinal fluid S-adenosylmethionine in depression and dementia: effects of treatment with parenteral and oral S-adenosylmethionine. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990;53(12):1096-8.
206. Rosenbaum JF, Fava M et al. The antidepressant potential of oral S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990;81(5):432-6.
207. Konig B. A long-term (two years) clinical trial with S-adenosylmethionine for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):89-94.
208. Di Padova C. S-adenosylmethionine in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Review of the clinical studies. Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):60-5.
209. Tavoni A, Vitali C et al. Evaluation of S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia. A double-blind crossover study. Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):107-10.
210. Di Rocco A, Rogers JD et al. S-Adenosyl-Methionine improves depression in patients with Parkinson's disease in an open-label clinical trial. Mov Disord. 2000;15(6):1225-9.
211. Rafique S, Guardascione M et al. Reversal of extrahepatic membrane cholesterol deposition in patients with chronic liver diseases by S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Clin Sci (Lond). 1992;83(3):353-6.
212. Di Padova C, Tritapepe R et al. S-adenosyl-L-methionine antagonizes oral contraceptive-induced bile cholesterol supersaturation in healthy women: preliminary report of a controlled randomized trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 1984;79(12):941-4.
213. Duker NJ. Chromosome breakage syndromes and cancer. 214. Golding G. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe): A mini review. J Austr Trad Med Soc. 2002;8(4):165-8.
215. Almasio P, Bortolini M et al. Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis. Drugs. 1990;40(Suppl 3):111-23.
216. Feo F, Pascale R et al. Effect of the variations of S-adenosyl-L-methionine liver content on fat accumulation and ethanol metabolism in ethanol-intoxicated rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986;83(2):331-41.
217. Mato JM, Camara J et al. S-adenosylmethionine in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. J Hepatol. 1999;30(6):1081-9.
218. Pancheri P, Scapicchio P et al. A double-blind, randomized parallel-group, efficacy and safety study of intramuscular S-adenosyl-L-methionine 1,4-butanedisulphonate (SAMe) versus imipramine in patients with major depressive disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002 Dec;5(4):287-94.
219. Liu XX, Wilson K et al. Effects of L-dopa treatment on methylation in mouse brain: implications for the side effects of L-dopa. Life Sci. 2000;66(23):2277-88.
220. Walzem RL, Dillard CJ et al. Whey components: millennia of evolution create functionalities for mammalian nutrition: what we know and what we may be overlooking. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2002;42(4):353-75.
221. Guimont C, Marchall E et al. Biologically active factors in bovine milk and dairy byproducts: influence on cell culture. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1997;37(4):393-410.
222. Sundberg J, Oskarsson A. Transfer of 137cesium via rat milk: reduction with ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991;69(4):286-90.
223. Ha E, Zemel MB. Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review). J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14(5):251-8.
224. Kelly O, Cusack S et al. The effect of bovine whey protein on ectopic bone formation in young growing rats. Br J Nutr. 2003;90(3):557-64.
225. Steijns JM, van Hooijdonk AC. Occurrence, structure, biochemical properties and technological characteristics of lactoferrin. Br J Nutr. 2000;84(Suppl 1):11-7.
226. Shah NP. Effects of milk-derived bioactives: an overview. Br J Nutr. 2000;84(Suppl 1):3-10.
227. Nishiya K, Horwitz DA. Contrasting effects of lactoferrin on human lymphocyte and monocyte natural killer activity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Immunol. 1982;129(6):2519-23.
228. Gahr M, Speer CP et al. Influence of lactoferrin on the function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1991;49(5):427-33.
229. Sawatzki G, Rich IN. Lactoferrin stimulates colony stimulating factor production in vitro and in vivo. Blood Cells. 1989;15(2):371-85.
230. McCormick JA, Markey GM et al. Lactoferrin-inducible monocyte cytotoxicity for K562 cells and decay of natural killer lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Clin Exp Immunol. 1991;83(1):154-6.
231. Machnicki M, Zimecki M et al. Lactoferrin regulates the release of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 in vivo. Int J Exp Pathol. 1993;74(5):433-9.
232. Marshall K. Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Altern Med Rev. 2004;9(2):136-56.
233. Tsai WY, Chang WH et al. Enchancing effect of patented whey protein isolate (Immunocal) on cytotoxicity of an anticancer drug. Nutr Cancer. 2000;38(2):200-8.
234. Ikeda M, Sugiyama K et al. Lactoferrin markedly inhibits hepatitis C virus infection in cultured human hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;245(2):549-53.
235. Tanaka K, Ikeda M et al. Lactoferrin inhibits hepatitis C virus viremia in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1999;90(4):367-71.
236. Okada S, Tanaka K et al. Dose-response trial of lactoferrin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002;93(9):1063-9.
237. Watanabe A, Okada K et al. Nutritional therapy of chronic hepatitis by whey protein (non-heated). J Med. 2000;31(5-6):283-302.
238. Agin D, Kotler DP et al. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition and muscle strength in women with HIV infection. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;904:607-9.
239. Agin D, Gallagher D et al. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body cell mass, muscle strength, and quality of life in women with HIV. Aids. 2001;15(18):2431-40.
240. Micke P, Beeh KM et al. Oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2001;31(2):171-8.
241. Micke P, Beeh KM et al. Effects of long-term supplementation with whey proteins on plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients. Eur J Nutr. 2002;41(1):12-8.
242. Zeisel SH, Da Costa KA et al. Choline, an essential nutrient for humans. Faseb J. 1991;5(7):2093-8.
243. Lieber CS. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. Adv Pharmacol. 1997;38:601-28.
244. Lieber CS. Pathogenesis and treatment of liver fibrosis in alcoholics: 1996 update. Dig Dis. 1997;15(1-2):42-66.
245. Ghyczy M, Boros M. Electrophilic methyl groups present in the diet ameliorate pathological states induced by reductive and oxidative stress: a hypothesis. Br J Nutr. 2001;85(4):409-14.
246. Lieber CS, Robins SJ et al. Phosphatidylcholine protects against fibrosis and cirrhosis in the baboon. Gastroenterology. 1994;106(1):152-9.
247. Niederau C, Strohmeyer G et al. Polyunsaturated phosphatidyl-choline and interferon alpha for treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Leich Study Group. Hepatogastroenterology. 1998;45(21):797-804.
248. Ma X, Zhao J et al. Polyenylphosphatidylcholine attenuates non-alcoholic hepatic fibrosis and accelerates its regression. J Hepatol. 1996;24(5):604-13.
249. Holoman J, Glasa J et al. [Positive effects of essential phospholipids and improvement of life style in patients with toxic liver injury]. Bratisl Lek Listy. 1998;99(2):75-81.
250. Secades JJ, Frontera G. CDP-choline: pharmacological and clinical review. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Oct;17(Suppl B):1-54.
251. McKenzie RC. Selenium, ultraviolet radiation and the skin. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000;25(8):631-6.
252. Arthur JR. Selenium supplementation: does soil supplementation help and why? Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62(2):393-7.
253. McKenzie RC, Rafferty TS et al. Selenium: an essential element for immune function. Immunol Today. 1998;19(8):342-5.
254. Rotruck JT, Pope AL et al. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 1973;179(73):588-90.
255. Combs GF, Jr., Clark LC et al. An analysis of cancer prevention by selenium. Biofactors. 2001;14(1-4):153-9.
256. Longnecker MP, Taylor PR et al. Selenium in diet, blood, and toenails in relation to human health in a seleniferous area. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(5):1288-94.
257. Fleet JC. Dietary selenium repletion may reduce cancer incidence in people at high risk who live in areas with low soil selenium. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(7):277-9.
258. Salonen JT, Alfthan G et al. Association between cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction and serum selenium in a matched-pair longitudinal study. Lancet. 1982;2(8291):175-9.
259. Vinton NE, Dahlstrom KA et al. Macrocytosis and pseudoalbinism: manifestations of selenium deficiency. J Pediatr. 1987;111(5):711-7.
260. Pennington JA, Young BE. Total diet study nutritional elements, 1982-1989. J Am Diet Assoc. 1991;91(2):179-83.
261. el-Bayoumy K, Upadhyaya P et al. Chemoprevention of cancer by organoselenium compounds. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1995;22:92-100.
262. Garland M, Morris JS et al. Toenail trace element levels as biomarkers: reproducibility over a 6-year period. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1993;2(5):493-7.
263. Foster HD. The iodine-selenium connection: its possible roles in intelligence, cretinism, sudden infant death syndrome, breast cancer and multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 1993;40(1):61-5.
264. Foster HD, Hoffer A. Schizophrenia and cancer: the adrenochrome balanced morphism. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(3):415-9.
265. Knekt P, Marniemi J et al. Is low selenium status a risk factor for lung cancer? Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(10):975-82.
266. Patterson BH, Levander OA. Naturally occurring selenium compounds in cancer chemoprevention trials: a workshop summary. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(1):63-9.
267. Russo MW, Murray SC et al. Plasma selenium levels and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Nutr Cancer. 1997;28(2):125-9.
268. Shamberger RJ. The genotoxicity of selenium. Mutat Res. 1985;154(1):29-48.
269. Deagen JT, Butler JA et al. Effects of dietary selenite, selenocystine and selenomethionine on selenocysteine lyase and glutathione peroxidase activities and on selenium levels in rat tissues. J Nutr. 1987;117(1):91-8.
270. Combs GF, Jr., Clark LC et al. Reduction of cancer risk with an oral supplement of selenium. Biomed Environ Sci. 1997;10(2-3):227-34.
271. Garland M, Morris JS et al. Prospective study of toenail selenium levels and cancer among women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87(7):497-505.
272. Navarro-Alarcon M, Lopez-Ga de la Serrana H et al. Selenium concentrations in serum of individuals with liver diseases (cirrhosis or hepatitis): relationship with some nutritional and biochemical markers. Sci Total Environ. 2002;291(1-3):135-41.
273. Ip C. Interaction of vitamin C and selenium supplementation in the modification of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986;77(1):299-303.
274. Hathcock JN. Vitamins and minerals: efficacy and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(2):427-37.
275. Raisbeck MF, Dahl ER et al. Naturally occurring selenosis in Wyoming. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1993;5(1):84-7.
276. IOM (Institute of Medicine). Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. ed. Anonymous. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;2000.
277. Bratter P, Negretti de Bratter VE. Influence of high dietary selenium intake on the thyroid hormone level in human serum. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1996;10(3):163-6.
278. Koller LD, Exon JH. The two faces of selenium-deficiency and toxicity--are similar in animals and man. Can J Vet Res. 1986;50(3):297-306.
279. Vinceti M, Wei ET et al. Adverse health effects of selenium in humans. Rev Environ Health. 2001;16(4):233-51.
280. Kroboth PD, Salek FS et al. DHEA and DHEA-S: a review. J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;39(4):327-48.
281. Baulieu EE. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): a fountain of youth? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81(9):3147-51.
282. Migeon CJ, Keller AR et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone and androsterone levels in human plasma: effect of age and sex; day-to-day and diurnal variations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1957;17(9):1051-62.
283. Orentreich N, Brind JL et al. Long-term longitudinal measurements of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;75(4):1002-4.
284. Labrie F, Belanger A et al. Marked decline in serum concentrations of adrenal C19 sex steroid precursors and conjugated androgen metabolites during aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(8):2396-402.
285. Longcope C. Dehydroepiandrosterone metabolism. J Endocrinol. 1996;150(Suppl):125-7.
286. Bird CE, Morrow L et al. Delta5-androstenediol: kinetics of metabolism and binding to plasma proteins in normal men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976;43(6):1317-22.
287. Zumoff BV, Bradlow HL. Sex difference in the metabolism of dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980;51(2):334-6.
288. Labrie F, Belanger A et al. Physiological changes in dehydroepiandrosterone are not reflected by serum levels of active androgens and estrogens but of their metabolites: intracrinology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(8):2403-9.
289. Elekima OT, Mills CO et al. Reduced hepatic content of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase in chronic liver diseases. Liver. 2000;20(1):45-50.
290. Fota-Markowska H, Kiciak S et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and androstenedione concentration in the serum of male patients with chronic hepatitis C. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med ]. 2003;58(1):297-301.
291. Demelia L, Solinas A et al. [Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in liver cirrhosis of viral etiology]. Ann Ital Med Int. 1991 Apr;6(2):203-9.
292. Franz C, Watson D et al. Estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations in normal subjects and men with cirrhosis. Steroids. 1979;34(5):563-73.
293. Morales AJ, Haubrich RH et al. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998;49(4):421-32.
294. Arlt W, Haas J et al. Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(6):2170-6.
295. Arlt W. Dehydroepiandrosterone and ageing. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;18(3):363-80.
296. Nippoldt TB, Nair KS. Is there a case for DHEA replacement? Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;12(3):507-20.
297. Robinzon B, Michael KK et al. Glucocorticoids inhibit interconversion of 7-hydroxy and 7-oxo metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone: a role for 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases? Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;412(2):251-8.
298. Pelletier G, Dupont E et al. Ontogeny and subcellular localization of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) in the human and rat adrenal, ovary and testis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1992;43(5):451-67.
299. Martel C, Melner MH et al. Widespread tissue distribution of steroid sulfatase, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase (3 beta-HSD), 17 beta-HSD 5 alpha-reductase and aromatase activities in the rhesus monkey. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994;104(1):103-11.
References, continued . . .
1-888-771-3905 | Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $40
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.
While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Extension Institute assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.